World = Time

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Note


Introduction


The truth about the World


Objective reality


What is "Force"?


A new look at Space-Time


Time - the greatest Force in the World


Time as a Substance


Types of Time


Time and causation


Interaction between types of Time


Energy and Time


Space - "the form" of Time


The one dimension of Time...


Quantum physics and Time


Time as a self-knowledge process


The speed of movement in Time...


Time - waves - mind


Time machine


Conclusion



Note

The proposed text is a short excerpt from the book, named WORLD-TIME. It includes only the original ideas of the author. The quotations from other authors can be found on the pages of the book.

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Introduction

Everyone asks himself about the nature of the World, he lives in. The visitor to this website will find interesting answers to what this general nature may look like based on original interpretation of contemporary achievements in science, philosophy and art.

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The truth about the World - when will it be known?

You do not have to swim the ocean to understand that it is filled with water.


When attempting to determine the essence of the World (Nature, Being, Universe, etc.), it should be borne in mind that this essence should not be seen as hiding somewhere in the future, and waiting yet to be discovered. The essence of the World is not only in the future. It is here and now - the cognizing subject is in the World, he is a part of it. Therefore he should be able to find the essence of the World NOW AND HERE!

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Objective reality - what is it?

What is the cause for this paradoxical situation, which has nowadays found a place in the notions of physical reality? On the one side - the confidence that science is closely approaching the complete description of the Universe, and on the other - still: what is physical reality?

What is this authoritative and mysterious essence that everyone is looking for and no one is able to find? Some call it "matter", others call it "Being", "Fate", "God", etc. What is doubtless, however, is this: what would be an obstacle to achieving the aims of the man, who have his joys, hopes and fears, if not the impact of an unknown and uncontrolled Force? (In fact, modern physics begins with the study of one of these forces - gravity.)

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What is "Force"?

"Force" can be briefly defined as "condition", "cause". The Force is the thing that determines. Forces in Nature are diverse. Physical, chemical, political, will-power, of habit, of logic, of beauty... Generally speaking: the notion of Force has a wide meaning.

Which is, however, the greatest force in the World? And not only that. Which is the greatest force that can be measured? (Will, for instance, cannot play the role of a universal force, because it cannot be have expressed quantitatively, it cannot be set in numbers).

According to physics, there are four fundamental forces: gravity, electromagnetism, weak and strong nuclear interactions, which are supposed to be different manifestations of the one and only Force. (But so far physics has failed to reduce these four forces to one.) In physics, energy is (perhaps) the most fundamental physical quantity. (For example: Einstein's formula: E = m.c2.)

But energy (gravity, electromagnetic and nuclear forces) acts as a reaction to any other force. Not accidentally, the basic physical law states: "Every action has a reaction equal in magnitude and opposite in direction." So defined, this law does not answer the question about the nature of the Force, but only about the consequences of her application.

But the Force should be "real" force - independent from anything but itself. It should "decide" by itself when, where and how to manifest, without being forced by another factor. The Force should not be determined; she itself must determine.

There is also another main question arising. Even if physics succeeds with the Theory of Everything, then will the resulting force, supposed to be the strongest force in Nature, have only a physical dimension? For this dimension is not sufficient for a complete description of the picture of the World. Can the force of gravity appear as a power of morality? Can the resultant of the now-familiar four physical forces play the complex role - integrating all existing forces? Will it resolve all existential problems?

Therefore is necessary to detect - in addition to purely physical forces - the most possibly universal dimension of the Force.

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A new look at Space-time

As is known, the main categories around which the philosophic discussions have been turning for centuries, categories that are a necessary condition for the existence of everything else, are Space and Time.

As stated above, matter cannot play the role of the physical reality. It begins to seem (as claimed by Einstein) that in this case, Space plays the primary role. And matter must be obtained from Space, so to speak, in the NEXT stage. Science always considered matter as primary and Space as secondary. But now Space, as it were, gets revenge and, figuratively speaking, "eats up" the matter.

Usually physics begin with the deployment of matter and then consider Space and Time as forms of matter. The correct view (according to Hegel) is that Space and Time must be presented first, and then it must be noted that their truth is the matter.

If all logical reasoning and considerations be reduced to only one, it will be concluded that "the attribute" of all phenomena - Space-time - is more universal than the phenomena themselves. I.e. the World is not in Space-time, nor Space-time is in the World, but Space-time ITSELF is the World (whatever that means). In this sense Space-time acquires the properties of all objective reality (in its popular interpretation: as a set of forces, stuff, fields, etc.)

Can Space-time play the role of the greatest force in the World?

Maybe... But the term "space-time continuum" contains many AMBIGUITIES. For example: it includes two separate categories - Space and Time. But the World is one whole and not may be composed of two independent substances. It is therefore necessary to make a choice: the one of them not be viewed as an independent and autonomous, but as a derivative of the other.

Let Space and Time be compared according to the most common criterion. Which of them is "stronger"? (Force - in the most general sense, is the main criterion in this case.)

It can easily be established that movement in Space is possible in any direction - forward, backward, up, down, sideways, etc. Graphically this movement can be presented in this simplified way.

No visible


Fig. 1

(where a is the starting point, b - the endpoint).

In Space, movement is possible from a to b and vice versa. Therefore, the freedom of movement in Space is complete.

In Time, it is possible to move from the start to end. But the opposite movement - from end to beginning - is not possible.

No visible


Fig. 2

Ergo, the freedom of movement in Time is LIMITED.

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Time - the greatest force in the World

The analysis of the expression "space-time continuum" leads to the conclusion on the distinct natures of Space and Time. It is not correct to put an equal sign between them. The nature of Time is unique. Time is not only measure. Time is force too. And not just any force. But the greatest force in the World. THE FORCE!

Time is this universal phenomenon which can be (and must be) regarded as the most common phenomenon at all. And that phenomenon corresponds to the notion "Force". This the greatest possible force relentlessly penetrate in all tangible and intangible entities, and they are not able to resist her.

With the traditional notion of time, only one of the manifestations of his essence is marked. Time must be understood not only as a measure of events, movements, processes, but also as a basis, source, nature, movement, process. One should stop to think of Time as a "formal a priori condition of all phenomena" and give it the status of THE ONLY OBJECTIVE REALITY.

"Something is happening", "something is changing" - the only thing that can be said about physical reality. Why is it so?

If prejudice (in terms of the understanding of Time as a measure of the events) is overcome, it will be not difficult to conclude that the "pure" happening and changing can be Time itself.

Time is everywhere. It is not only the abstraction called "time" but all that is perceived through the senses. Time underlies the whole physical World. The whole World can be called "temporal". It is composed of Time (whatever that means).

Time is the most universal but also the most specific concept, one that unites the understanding of the whole objective reality. It should be seen as a force in the subjectivist sense - Fate. And also as a physical force - the Arrow of Time. There is no other term that covers the two different forms of the existence - mental and physical. ("Tempora mutantur et nos mutamus in illis.")

Some seek the unknown and mysterious nature of the World in the depths of Time and are not sure whether they will find it. But it is here, around, everywhere. It has been in the Past, will be in the Future - in all times. In Time.

"World" is basic, primary concept, with a maximal extension but with minimal intension (content). "World" sounds impersonal. "World" is, as they say in grammar, noun.

But "Time" - what is it?

You could say: "Time" is the PERSONAL NAME of the World. Or summarily: WORLD=TIME.

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Time as a Substance

(It should be borne in mind that the Substance should not be seen as an outdated concept, as is commonly believed in modern science. Science today does not deal with the concept of Substance, because it cannot handle it. Therefore, it is necessary to restore the understanding of one single, unified Substance. Substance that contains in itself everything - energy, information, content and form, whole and parts, matter and spirit. For it is only thus that one can conceive the essence of the World - as something that depends on itself, and that creates itself from itself, and develops itself without external interference. This thing is the Everything.)

What phenomenon can be assigned the honorary title of causa sui? This should be a phenomenon strong enough not to depend on others, strong enough to create, modify and destroy itself, but never losing its unique character. To determine yourself and at the same time sufficiently free, to determine its determination.("Energy" is not the right term, energy cannot determine itself, otherwise it should be able to create and destroy itself contrary to its basic law.)

Substance does not have to be sought for. It is in front of the observer at every moment. And not in the Future only (when, as it is believed, it will eventually be detected). Because if Substance exists only in the Future, it would mean that Substance is not Everything. This Substance is not something vague, intangible, which cannot be touched, taken in hand, it is not only the "sub"... ("under"...). Substance is both the stone and the hand that holds it. The World at this moment is the Substance at this moment.

It should be emphasized that Time (which perhaps is the only and unique Substance) should be considered as a measure and a measured; therefore both entities - measure and measured - are substantial. I.e. "Time" means not only "measure for duration", so that, and as a result of the relation between measure and measured, such an expression would appear as "a second to a second", or any other nonsensical result. (For instance: if through one ruler one measures the length of another ruler, this most likely will not be considered as absurd.)

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Types of Time

One of the most famous scientific theories (Newton's) favours the idea of Absolute time. Another (Einstein's) rejects this idea. It affirms the relativity of Time. It is clear that these two theories are incompatible. On the one hand the theory of Absolute time cannot explain some physical phenomena occurring under extreme conditions. On the other hand the theory of relativity denies the Absolute. "Everything is relative" is its main premise. (But is not "Everything" already an Absolute?)

These two manifestations of Time should not be put in opposition. Time should be considered in all of its aspects: both as absolute and as relative. (In this sense, the World has a dual nature. It only seems antinomian. The so-called duality comes as two different manifestation of the united and only Substance.)

"World=Time" required defining a few basic concepts. They reflect how the main determining essences ("force", "cause", etc.) are "responsible" for all possible interactions in the objective reality:

- The Past can be defined as time with an end but without a beginning.

- The Future is time with a start but without an end. In other words, Future is "infinity".

- The Instant is Absolute time but "compressed" in the Present. (That's why one cannot "capture the moment", it constantly slips away, and not because the Present is elusive.) The Instant is the minimum duration of the Present (in terms of the observer), contains the entire Time in a given moment.

- Every Instant has a its particular place in the Time - Moment. The Moment is the historical, unique place of the Instant in Time.

- Absolute time is the whole of Time.

So understood, Absolute time has nothing else to correlate with, except for its own parts. Absolute time, however, should not be viewed as some abstract, universal, cosmic time, which flows evenly and non-relatively to observers. Under "Absolute Time" one should understand the organic unity of all relative times, the sum of them - in the same way as the totality of material objects formed the Universe in its entirety. Absolute time is a time that has no beginning and no end - i.e. it is the so-called Eternity.

The beginning of Time can be defined only in Time. The beginning of Time is relative. EVERY MOMENT of Time can be its beginning. (The Kantian antinomies, relevant to Space and Time, are valid only for Space.) The main reason for fallacies with regard to the temporary and the eternal is that no difference is made between "TEMPORARY" and "TEMPORAL". These are different concepts. Usually one associates "eternity" with "infinity" in order to specify this otherwise vague concept. But "eternity" is not equivalent to "infinity". Eternity has no beginning and no end. In this sense, Eternity shall be called "no-start-or-end-ness".

No visible


Fig. 3

For the observer, the World exists only between point 1 and 2: "the beginning" of the Past and "the end" of the Future (according to the figure above). But from these notions one cannot acquire a concept of the whole of Time (Absolute time - Eternity), because in this case "the beginning" and "the end" are two different points. The "line of knowledge" is open on both opposite sides and there is a lack of clarity: where the Past comes from and where the Future goes to?

However, "the end" of the Future (point 2) is not an end of Time in general, but it is the beginning of an INVISIBLE ZONE, indirectly related to the Past (point 1). The so-called curvatures of the Space actually are the "bends" that Time makes at point 1 and point 2. Behind those bends, it is logical not to see anything specific. For modern physics this invisible area is "singularity". This section (from point 2 to point 1) is elusive to physics. But it is the missing link that should be added to any scientific theory that claims to be a Theory of everything (e.g. quantum gravity), because it is only in this way can one can supplement, round up, form, complete the overall picture of the World.

The parts of Time can be likened to poles of a magnet. Movement from S to N is adequate to movement from Past to Future (P - Past, F - Future), and the Present is the boundary line between them (it makes us wonder how uniform Nature is in its various manifestations):

No visible


Fig. 4

We should pay attention to the field lines from one to the other extreme in the opposite direction (out of the magnet). The lines of force draw the path of transition from Future to Past - this path is invisible, since it is outside the area of observation. Physics also speaks of the cone of the event horizon, but this is a one-sided picture, it is incomplete, as it lacks a description of perhaps the most important zone - the feedback between Future and Past. As the practice shows, the feedback is just as important as "the rights link". (Without feedback, for example, no current could flow in the electric grid.)

Actually, the Schredinger equation leads to the obvious consequence: Time merges with Eternity. In the classical (relativistic) mechanics, singularities in the Space can disrupt evolution, resulting in stops of Time. But in quantum mechanics Time has no limit, the variable t (time) ranges from - infinity to + infinity.

The Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox: after the measurement of the state of a particle, expressing in collapse of its wave function ensues, as "the news" for this alteration becomes distributed instantly to another particle. If information spreads with infinite speed, this means that Absolute Time exists.(Thus, the space-time continuum of Einstein can exist simultaneously with the Absolute Time of Newton.) Quantum non locality supports precisely the thesis of the relative nature of Space and the absolute nature of Time.

(Paradoxically, Einstein, who did not accept some of the results of quantum mechanics, introduced the observer as a determinant - "Theory of relativity" - the movement of the objects in relation to the observer.)

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Time and causation ("Arrow of Time")

One of the goals of science is to provide repeatability, reproducibility of experimental results. But that does not mean "victory over Time" in terms of the elimination of its uniqueness. Each repetition is unique because its place in Time is unique.

Reversible processes do not exist. Whenever there is a process, in its deepest essence it is irreversible. The so-called "reversible processes" are irreversible too. "Irreversibility" should not be confused with "repetition". (Otherwise, science would come back to its original position, i.e. it will cease to be science.)

Another consideration. "Symmetry" is an important concept in physics. But what does it mean for a phenomenon be symmetrical? This means two things - first: symmetry, and second - asymmetry, which could serve as a correlate of the symmetrical process. The asymmetric (in its nature) Time is the main reason for the preservation of the laws of physics (i.e., to account for their preservation ongoing events are necessary, i.e. asymmetry), rather than the opposite, as usually believed: that physical laws should be saved when turning the direction of Time.

It is unclear why the physics should seek to maintain the symmetry in Nature. Symmetry and asymmetry are complementary (as in the case of the categories of being and non-being, for instance) and should be considered in their totality, not in their negation. A more universal notion than them is Time; symmetry should be deduced from the Time, and not vice versa.

What is "causality"?

According to classical physics, physical forces acts on the action-counteraction principle: to every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.

At first glance, this law seems correct, perfect, unshakable. Based on it, physics aims to draw symmetry (one that allegedly exists) in Nature.

But one loses sight of one important fact.

Action and reaction are not equal in strength, though seemingly they are. The counteracting is a consequence of the action! The action comes FIRST IN TIME, i.e. it determines the reaction. Therefore the strength of the action exceeds the strength of counteraction.

As to physical forces - yes, they are symmetrical in size - action and reaction, but the gap in Time is the reason for energy to appear in the form known to science. If there is no violation of symmetry, there will be no movement, speeds, accelerations, although the energy potential could be enormously large. Time is the decisive factor that "slips" the action and the reaction, pulls them "in phase" one relative to the other, and this results in movement with all the consequences.

It is in this "phase shift" between action and reaction that the role of asymmetry in natural processes becomes manifest.

(The situation with the symmetry of the Universe, energy and Time can be likened to a biker who presses his feet on the pedals. If he presses on both pedals simultaneously, regardless of the size of the total pressure, the bicycle will not move. However, if the pressure be applied consistently - in Time, i.e. first pressing one foot and then the other, the bike will depart.)

Therefore the most important characteristics of the objects (both physical and mental objects) are not energy, mass, gravity, etc., but the cause-effect relationship. (The reason for the fall of the apple of the Earth is gravity. But the reason for its staying of the branch is its stalk.)

Any cognitive activity inherently is the determining process (and vice versa). If the exploring of a phenomenon fails, this just goes to show that the phenomenon, in turn, determines the one who explores. Impossibility of knowledge leads to impossibility of determining.

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Interaction between types of Time

The picture of the World (as Time-Substance) differs from the classical ideas about the simple sequence called "past-present-future".

The cause-effect relation is equal to the force-freedom relation. That relation shows how freedom develops at any moment of Time - from full determination to complete freedom. One should not treat past and future events as existIng or non-existing. (This is a simplistic understanding of the Time.) There is a strict dependence of what is Past and what is Future. These events did not just happen in a random order and sequence.

The Past contains those events that can no longer cause effects. The Future contains those events that can determinate. (For example: a meteorite that is currently not visible but at some point could crash into the Earth and cause the death of all life.) Although not yet manifested in the Present (which is relative in nature because it exist only for the observer), the Future dictates its choice. Outwardly it seems that the system faces several options and randomly selects one of them (the so-called "bifurcations").

Not so. The Future determines what this possibility will be. It "knows" what this opportunity is because it is itself a result of this opportunity.

(In fact, Schredinger's cat is neither alive nor dead, not because there is uncertainty at the time of observation. But because the timing of the observation does not include all periods of the life of the cat, which leads to the indeterminacy.)

Darwin's theory is correct with one reservation: the species do not develop by themselves - the Future "helps" them to. The principle is: the more imperfect the structure is, the stronger is the influence upon its development. (And vice versa).

Therefore there are two parallel processes: not only the Past determines the Future, but the Future determines the Past too (according to the requirement for a "feedback", as this should exist within any closed system).

And if thousands and millions of years ago the life on Earth was more primitive, and now has evolved, the "culprit" for this is not only natural selection by trial and error. It is also the impact that the Future, in a subtle but authoritative manner, inflicts on the Past, forcing it to develop non-chaotically. (I came to light thanks to the will and wishes of my parents, but some influence upon this desire and will I have exerted myself, even though I did not exist at the time of my birth date! However, I exist now, and my presence in the Present, i.e. Future from their perspective, affect their intentions back then.)

In a sense it can be said that Time makes itself by moving from Past to Future, and knows itself by moving from the Future to the Past. I.e. knowing yourself from the Future to the Past - this is the direction of THE SPIRITUAL PROCESS. It makes itself from the Past to the Future - this is the direction of THE MATERIAL PROCESS.

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Energy and Time

According to the Law of conservation of energy, the total energy of a closed system is constant with respect to time. In other words, energy cannot be created or destroyed. (Similarly, it can be argued that in a closed system in which there is no energy, energy will not appear by itself.)

The definition of the law of conservation of energy does not answer the question: how does energy appear? Since everything in the World appears and disappears, energy itself should do so too.

Indeed, the experimental data are consistent with the law, and there's nothing to argue about. However, knowledge requires us to cover the object of cognition in its entirety, i.e. to define its limits, beginnings and ends. The position of science as to energy demonstrates ambiguity, which ambiguity is actually the result of lack of knowledge.

"World=Time" offers us the opportunity to avoid the limitations of scientific concepts such as mass, energy, gravity, etc., by presenting the World by means of purely temporal concepts - "Past", "Future", "Moment", "Instant", etc. How to express mass - as a "stack effect" from the Past, or "pressure" on the part of the Future, or vice versa? There is no fundamental obstacle to such expressions.

One could say that energy is the physical manifestation of Time, the expression of the potential tension between times. The larger the time interval, i.e. the greater the distance of two events in Time (the greater the difference between the movement and the state), the more energy is contained therein. (For example: when charging the car battery, voltage is created. In a sense we can say that the battery is charged with Future at the expense of the Past.)

Therefore, the physical equation E = m.c2, expressed through purely temporal measures, would look like this:

E = F / P

(where E is energy, F is Future, P is Past).

Time has the status of a force when the cognizing subject is unable to achieve his goals IMMEDIATELY. He is prevented in this endeavor and the reason is the strength of the external (to him) Time.

(For example: If anyone tries to break a wall, the time to achieve this goal aim can be shortened or extended depending on the strength that is needed to break the wall. Matter is "compressed" time. If he swings a hammer and hits the wall with the aim to destroy it, in the physical sense this is interpreted as a result of the ability to concentrate a lot of energy in one place. However, it is an expression of the ability to "press" a lot of time in one instant only.)

The greater inner strength the cognizing subject has, the faster he can achieve his goal. (For example: if he realizes that he does not have to destroy the wall but can go through the door, this consideration has the character of inner strength - as a result of centuries of evolutionary process: the subject has become aware that there is a door! This inner force (the consciousness) in this case is greater than the physical, external force, the energy required to break the wall. An internal force of this magnitude may not be possessed by another, less developed living entity, such as a fly. The fly would hit into the wall until it dies.)

If the cognizing subject in an ideal situation acquires the ability to cover the entire Time, the achievement of all goals can done instantly, for a Instant. This ability can be mistakenly interpreted as "victory" over Time.

But Time is not "defeated". The cognizing subject itself becomes Absolute Time - Eternity.

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Space - "the form" of Time

The Unity of Time and Space, embodied in the figure of the space-time continuum, requires a more critical interpretation, although science today makes its own conclusions and assumptions about its unconditional acceptance.

The problem in the Theory of relativity comes from "the locking" of Time onto Space. The result is a "logjam" of scientific hypotheses, their "wading" into infinite divergences, singularities and the like.

One of the largest and unresolved issues related to Space is the number of spatial dimensions. Why are they three, and not some other number (or is perhaps the number 3 a magic number)? Furthermore, the suspicion arises regarding the sameness of the spatial dimensions. Each of them could easily be replaced with any of the other. But there is no "sameness" in the Nature. No two things in the World are exactly the same.

The three spatial dimensions should be considered as derivatives of the one and only dimension of Time. Through them, the cognizing subject is able to "see" the World in volume, in spatiality, i.e. in a one-time-ness (simul-taneity).

The spatial dimensions are not three independent dimensions but are individual expressions of the single dimension - that of Time. More precisely, they are the same dimension but multiplied. Through the figure of Space, TIme becomes visible and tangible.

The one dimension of the Time is wrongly likened to spatial dimension: a straight line without beginning or end, but with a certain direction. The dimension of Time should be understood as a dimension that is directly related to the cause and effect. Its presence comes to suggest that, within the perimeter of its action, there is absolute determinacy. When one action generates another and the latter one generates a third, there is a chain of the one dimension of Time. In this single dimension, the thing determined has no choice, it is moving in the direction that the Arrow of Time indicates, and in this direction only.

It should not be held that the space-time continuum "bends" under the pressure of gravity. What is distorted (shrunk) is only Space, because Time increases (rather than slowing down, as it is held commonly in relation to the Theory of relativity). So-called "singularities" occur when Time becomes more "powerful" than Space. I.e. the influence of knowledge on events exceeds the ability to understand (one should not put an insurmountable barrier between ontology and epistemology). It is not that Time and Space "twirl" because of gravity, it is not gravity that slows Time down, quite the contrary: Time creates strong gravitational fields that distort Space.

Euclidean space is such because the cognizing subject can achieve a full idealization of the Space: an ideal plane, a perfectly straight line, etc.

Therefore all "swirls", "curves", etc. of Space are the result of subject’s lack of knowledge. The reason lies in the great amount of time, necessary to explore Space, which ultimately "distorts" his cognitive image. The cognizing subject is not able to capture this Time, it surpasses his limitations, and he cannot see the World in its "pure" spatiality. Space is, so to speak, the "tangibility of Time". Space is the visible reality which, however, is not the whole reality (perhaps this is why the question of the nature of objective reality is asked so often).

In Space things also are not given simultaneously, as is customary to believe, but successively. Their simultaneity is only relative. The events in Space happen approximately simultaneously. If they occurred exactly simultaneously, all objects would be situated at the same distance from the observer. But this would mean that there are neither objects nor volume, i.e. there would be no Space. (The paradox of the solid body.) The establishment of the points located at different places in Space, takes time. (For example: if you need to determine the location of two points - one to another - you must first establish the location of one of them, and only then the place of the other.)

Spatiality is relevant to the Present. It itself is the Present. Actually, Space is a representation of Time, but not as sequence, not as duration, but as a parallel. SPACE IS A "FORM" OF TIME.

In the context of the theme: one of the delusions of science is related to the so-called ether. The ether as a primordial environment for the existence of all material objects has engendered high hopes, but it was found that such an environment does not exist (as evidenced by the Michelson-Morley experiment). The problem comes from the idea of the ether as a very fine, delicate substance, a field that fills all of Space. But if we took this idea as a departure point, we should assume that Space has a primary character (since it contains the ether itself). As seen above, Space is only a "form" of Time. It can therefore be assumed that the ether really exists and that it is indeed a "thin substance", but not in Space, but only as a time presence. Zeno's paradoxes are a kind of evidence against the thesis of the independent existence of Space in the context of the space-time continuum. The arrow moves in Time (in general, any movement is in Time) and stops in Space. In Space the arrow looks (and should look) stopped. This is why Space is Space: its function is to stop processes.

This paradox ("Zeno's arrow") is a consequence of the assumption that when a body moves (i.e. has speed), it should be located at a certain place (i.e. have coordinates). However, a body cannot have both speed and position. It has speed because it has no coordinates, and vice versa, it has coordinates because it has no speed! (That an airplane flies and its movement is visible on the horizon, does not mean that it is moving in Space. It is identified as an airplane in Space, because the observer is able to halt the observed phenomenon for a moment in order to cognize it. In reality, the airplane moves in Time.) Spatiality is the product of the cognitive ability of the subject. For something to be cognized means for it to be fully covered, i.e. sit must have a beginning and an end. One cannot know something that is not formed, something that does not possess the character of a cognized thing.

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The one dimension of Time as primary and as the basis for all other dimensions

If one follows the latest developments in physics, one can seen that science gradually and consistently goes into the depth of matter: 8, 10, 11, 26 or more spatial dimensions appear, as do many elementary particles, each with its unique characteristics, etc. etc. The paradigm in the superstring theory turns around the panorama of the huge number of possible solutions of the theory. However, "playing" with any number of dimensions (with the sole purpose to fit results of calculations and experiments into them) leads to COMPLEXITY rather than to the simplification of the physical picture.

Complicating the physical picture is probably the only way to uncover the secrets of Nature. The problem, however, is that science, instead of reducing, multiplies - thus it leads to a cognitive process threatening to acquire the character of bad infinity.

Along the way of physics - increasing the number of spatial measurements - one will hardly reach an answer to the question of the primary metric in Nature. Why, for instance, do physics increase only the number of spatial dimensions, but the temporal dimension remains the only one? It would be more correct, consistent and systematically not to multiply but to REDUCE the number of spatial dimensions to a single dimension. (Everything begins from "one", the truth is also one.)

However, modern physical theories seem to guess the right way. Both string theory and loop quantum gravity begin with the use of one-dimensional objects. But they speak of loops, strings, etc. - concepts that are in one way or another related to the spatial perception of things. And they do not reach the summary idea of the primary nature of the one time dimension. The most true picture would be if reality be represented in a SINGLE, primary, BASIC DIMENSION. And then one should add to it as many dimensions as it is within the knowledge possibilities at that historic moment. (It is easier to "sew" the fabric of existence with one "thread" than with four "threads" at once.)

In a more general philosophical aspect, the vibrating one-dimensional objects can be interpreted as the result of the effort of Time to get rid of its own deterministic force and "see" itself under the form of another time, "perpendicular" to itself. The very resonating (of the so-called strings) is a manifestation of this effort, which converts the sequence of the one time dimension into One-time-ness (simul-taneity), i.e. spatiality. Figuratively speaking: from Nothing, Being is born. (This yields the picture familiar from the screen of the oscilloscope as well as from the electrocardiogram of the human heart - the long horizontal sections of the graph are replaced with pulsations in the perpendicular direction.)

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Fig. 5

Even if one relies on the string theories in the future, it would be justified if it becomes assumed that the "strings" are actually only one - "the arrow of Time". Physics attempts to create a unified theory that describes all natural phenomena: "Theory of everything". However, for the philosopher this simple presentation of this cognitive phenomenon is insufficient. The philosopher is accustomed to "think the act of thinking". Why must this theory be one, single, self-sufficient?

The answer is clear. Once the intention is to create a unified system of knowledge about reality, that reality must be considered as also one, single, uniquely present. (I.e. the ontological problem of the one and only one Substance should be determined in a regular, consistent, adequate epistemological aspect, by seeking and devising a single true explanation of the observed facts.) But in this case this means that a single, universal measure it is necessary to express quantitatively this single truth - under the form of a (single) primary dimension, one that can serve as the smallest building block for all subsequent dimensions. (Not accidentally one seeks for the primary, smallest, indivisible particle, atom, by which to "assemble" everything present. Why cannot this primeval atom be presented as simply as possible - in one single dimension?)

The aim of physics is to discover the possibly most powerful force in Nature. But physics cannot achieve this aim in the form of the space-time continuum, because this continuum includes not only absolute force (of the Time), but also (certain degrees of) freedom (of the Space). The result is a situation like blowing a balloon punctured at three places.) Is not timely to talk about "The End of determination" (Prigogine) since "The Beginning of determination" has not been put.

Actually, quantum gravity should start here - from the one-dimensional time-world. (In the one-dimensional world singularities should disappear.)

True science (which the present physics is not yet) should begin not from random inception, as is the case with gravity and the quanta - objects "accidentally" selected from all over the arsenal of observed phenomena. But from one situation that includes development in itself, as an immanent, inherent nature (just like mathematics, starting from the number 1, then builds up the infinite set of numbers). Neither gravity nor quanta are the final aim of physics. (Otherwise one would have to assume that quanta are the final ideas that can be thought at all.)

A basic requirement in expanding the frontiers of knowledge is a uniform methodology for all of its fields. (Not accidentally, Kant was worried about the gap between "mathema" and "dogma", between mathematics and philosophy.) But if you look from the position of consistent monism, the difference between them is not so great: philosophy starts from the idea for "one", and mathematics - of its "number 1". Why then is there a problem?

Let us designate, through the figures of philosophy and mathematics, the two conditional limits of knowledge: the World as a unified, qualitative, abstract whole, and the smallest, specific, quantitative unity (like "1" in mathematics). Between philosophy and mathematics, one should put physics as a science of Nature, of the senses, the ambient world, the objective reality. Then the methodological scheme would look like this:

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Fig. 6

It is seen that the principle of monism is violated (by physics, which, with its four key basic dimensions, does not fit into the general scheme). They "weigh down" and ruin the balance in the scheme (and subsequently physics applies heroic efforts to restore it). It would be far more simplified, logically and systematically consistent to adopt something along the lines figuratively represented in following scheme:

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Fig. 7

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Quantum physics and Time

Starting from the "World=Time" proposition, one could arrive at a new explanation of the phenomenon of wave-particle duality.

When a given micro object is observed and the speed of the object (wave) can be established exactly, the location of the object cannot. Conversely, the location of the object (the particle) can be accurately established only at the the expense of speed.

However, by unknown reasons, physics holds that speed and coordinates must obtain simultaneously. On the contrary, when the particle has a location, i.e. its coordinates cab be established, this means that it has stopped its movement, it has no speed! It is in one place. It simply does not move. I.e. the presence of the particle and the inability to measure its speed can only mean that the velocity of the object in question is reduced to zero. (It should be emphasized that this is movement of the object in Time, not in Space. The "stopping" of an object means that it has found its place in Time, in a particular historical moment, there where it acquires real shape, material properties, etc.)

Therefore the dual wave-particle nature of physical objects is not a drawback of the quantum theory. This theory reflects the dual nature of the objects in the best sense of the word. Although any object is unique in itself, it exists in two forms, both as a particle and as a wave. I.e. it exists in all possible states (all possible stories – according to Hawking), guaranteeing its full presence in all of Time – Past, Present and Future!

The task of physical observation is to establish the position of the object in Space-Time. But physics, observing small objects, does not observe them in Space-Time. It observes them in what it believes to be Space-Time. But it is not. Why?

As to Space, there is no problem. There are three spatial coordinates, with regard to which the location of the object can be determined accurately. I.e. the measurement is relative to the whole Space (as it should be, because Space, unlike Time, no divisions like Past, Present, Future). When undertaking the observation, however, the observer does so with the unconscious attitude that this observation is only valid for the Present. This is an error, since Time is not just the Present. Therefore, it should be clarified what the state of the object is not only in the Present but ALSO IN THE PAST AND FUTURE. Only then would he obtain the FULL PICTURE of the object in Time.

Every material object (as an ensemble of particles), existing in Space, should have an equivalent, representing a set of waves - its wave-equivalent. This wave-equivalent should not depend on the location, i.e. no spatial restrictions should be valid for it. The wave-equivalent of the object should not be sought in the Present but in the Past and Future. If the corpuscular object disappears into Space (and it will do so after the observer stops observing it), its wave-equivalent should continue to live as long as is the duration of all Time.

Consequently, micro-objects are neither particles nor waves. They are temporal structures that manifest themselves either as particles or as waves, depending on the observation (more precisely: on the time of observation). Each object exists in the Everything, i.e. in Eternity.

Therefore It must exist in all possible times - Past, Present, Future, because the Time is one united system. (An integral part of a system cannot fail to have an impact on the other parts of the system or suffer impact from them.)

On the basis of the above, the principle of uncertainty can be renamed into the PRINCIPLE OF CERTAINTY (DETERMONACY). It provides a complete physical picture of the physical object - both as a particle and as a wave.

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Time as a process toward self-knowledge

If one adopts the understanding of the relativistic physics that Time and Space are only relative, then an important question arises: what should be the ABSOLUTE MEASURE by which to build a system of true knowledge?

In physics, the essences of measured and measurer are not taken into account. It is commonly assumed that they are different substances. (This is how the difficult situation arises with "dualism", "thing in itself", "otherness", "matter and spirit", etc., etc.)

The Substance, however, can be only one. When measurements are made, the one and indivisible Substance must be divided, but only conditionally. One part must play the role of unknown objects measured), and the other of the cognizing subject (measurer).

"Classical" coordinate system. Measure and measured are two different substances:

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Fig. 8

Below, a variant is displayed to help in the search for a solution in this direction. The scheme shows how measured and measurer are different manifestations of one and only Substance:

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Fig. 9

For the constitution of any object of knowledge, measure is needed. The existence of the object itself is not enough. For not only the object but also the measure for it is under study. For one thing to exist, two things are necessary - the thing itself and the measure of it.

Self-knowledge is inherently a process in which the knower goes out of himself/itself, covers a range of external events, and then returns to himself/itself, enriched with new knowledge. This process can be called the cognitive cycle.

The movement along this circle is, figuratively speaking, the line of the perfect circle. Self-knowledge cannot happen otherwise, unless the self-knower changes his/its own direction by turning around to the initial direction of motion. This creates the notion that he/it stops with regard to itself. In this state of being stopped with regard to itself, it can relate to itself and be defined as the movement toward a state.

(For example: a car moving on the road at a certain speed, turns to a different road, perpendicular to the first. From the position of the initial direction of motion, the movement continues at the same rate, but now the car seems to stop. Only its visible size becomes smaller.) The "rotation" of the self-knower around himself/itself in order to "see" himself/itself has become a universal tool for self-exploration, a tool that can be detected in the rotary motion of all objects in the Universe. As a result of rotation, all material bodies are created - from elementary particles to galaxies.

(And maybe physics starts from here...) The increase or decrease of speed, the change of direction are the basis of all physical force.

It should be noted that the so-called "gravity" is not responsible for the attraction of the material bodies and for the curvature of Space-time. On the contrary, gravity is the result of the movement of Time with regard to yourself - from Past to Future and back again. For example: the so-called singularity is "suction" of Space by the Time. Matter is compressed into infinitely small volumes and the semblance Time stopping arises. This process can be figuratively called a process of "contraction" and "expansion". Space "shrinks" but Time "stretches", increases (rather than slowing down, as in the classical interpretation of the Theory of relativity).

The cognitive circle in Time does not correspond to the full return of the knower to himself/itself. If so, the knower would become fully identical to himself as if he were in the beginning of cognition, i.e. there would be no result from the process of knowledge.

The spiral is the result of accumulated new knowledge, integrated into new events that cannot be ignored because they have already occurred. Here is why there can be no return of Time: each return is a new event that is added to knowledge and takes it further away from its initial 'I'. (The deployment of the "golden section" and the Fibonacci spiral are examples of the accumulation of events in the knower that flows from himself/itself to himself/itself.)

The weaker is the self-knowledge, the smaller is the cognitive circle. The elementary particle has elementary cognitive abilities, and thus the rotational motion that it creates has the smallest possible radius. Around the galactic center, however, a multitude of stars revolve – the difference in the ability of self-knowledge is immense.

Each separate structure is nothing but a particular form of self-knowledge. In a sense, the photon is a photon because it "thinks" like a photon, the sun is sun because it "thinks" like a sun, the stone is a stone because it "thinks" like a stone, the flower is a flower because it "thinks" like a flower, the fly is fly because it "thinks" like a fly, man is man because he thinks like man.

It is wrong to say that the dead stuff has no spiritual presence in the World. The dead stuff exists and "thinks" itself precisely as dead - as stone, metal and water, etc.

The so-called "loops", "pretzels", "strings" (the modern "tuning" of the atoms of Democritus and Leucippus as countless primary elements equipped with multiple hooks and all kinds of devices for attaching to each other) are another attempt of the new quantum theories at figuratively represent precisely those essential forms of self-knowledge through which the self-developing thought tries, in coming out of itself and encompassing new knowledge, to return back to itself. And this process results in increasingly more complex twisted "loops", increasingly more intricate "pretzels", louder "ringing" and "resonating strings", etc., etc.

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The speed of movement in Time - the universal measurement quantity

There are many measures, magnitudes and sundry other methods that differ from one another and are irreducible to one another. Some are the measures and dimensions in physics, others in chemistry, others still in psychology, in art, etc. (But this diversity is unlikely to lead to a unified knowledge.)

There is a need for such a method of measurement that would incorporate all of them and be universal - as it should be when you search for the single and unique nature of things. As was stated, movement and state are an expression of the cognitive process, that underlies everything existing and is the purpose of existence. The more clearly expressed the relation between movement and state, the more comprehensive measure is, and the more complete self-knowledge is. It is known from physics that the relation between movement and state can be expressed in the form of speed. By the same reasoning it can be assumed that the SPEED OF MOVEMENT IN TIME (or simply "speed") should appear as the main parameter that determines the uniqueness of each structure and its place in Time.

The higher is the speed of the knower with regard to the known, the longer will the observer be able to observe the known, to examine it from more angles and dimensions, to "hover over it", to return again and again to it, to know it more fully. Thus, any cognitive activity could be limited to determining the speed in Time (regardless of the area of knowledge - science, art, social life, etc.)

The speed in Time is unlimited (as opposed to the speed in Space). Ideally (science likes to deal with idealizations - absolutely solid body, perfectly straight line, etc.); the movement-state relation should result in a speed high enough to allow Time to compress itself into a single instant. I.e. through the "eyes" of Time (assuming that it can play the role of an Absolute abstract subject), all events that have occurred throughout its history would pass only within an "eye blink". And these events would look, from its position, like frozen movements - a static picture, a dormant space (maybe the unconscious goal of the geometrical paradigm is precisely this result). And, looking through the prism of the relativity of motion, it will be seen that this state corresponds to the so-called Eternity. However, if Time allowed each of its structures to move with the highest possible speed, there would simply be no Time. For Time consist of all processes and phenomena - the lengthier and more numerous they are, the more "alive" Time would be.

Therefore, in order to exist as itself, Time should satisfy two conflicting requirements: to get to know itself as soon as possible (otherwise it would not be what it is - a process of self-knowledge), and to remains an object of his own cognition, i.e. its total length must be maximal. (This is why it is common to say that not only the goal is important but also the road to it.)

As a way out of this seemingly unresolvable dilemma, Nature seems to have found a compromise: to increase to and limit the speed (of its own self-knowledge).

(If one is to believe in the relativistic physics,) in Nature there is a limitation of speed, valid for all material formations. The speed of light is the maximum speed in the physical world. One should not equate the speed (of Time) with the speeds achieved in the physical world - these are different concepts. "Speed in Time" is different from "speed in Space".

An object with a small physical energy can be faster than an object with a greater physical energy. For example: a living structure that originally has small physical energy - of the order of watts - may have a temporal energy greater than the energy of the sun. The sun is a huge physical structure that radiates a lot of energy. The problem is that the speed of its elements - mainly excited hydrogen atoms - is approximately the same for all of them. The resultant speed is not much higher (limited to the speed of light); this speed is obtained by superimposition of the speeds of individual atoms, which, however, leads to an increase of physical energy and not of temporal energy. That is why the star is "inflated" in a spatial-energetic sense - it increases its volume and its physical power, but this increase in one moment becomes almost useless because it does not lead to an increase of its temporal energy and the star collapses, i.e. the star fails to surpass its capacities of cognizing objective reality. (There is no question of the lifetime of the star, which may be of the order of billions of years.)

Therefore a different process is needed of redistribution of energy so as to increase the speed in Time (and not in Space).

The structure overcomes the contradiction between the maximum possible speed (in Time) and the externally imposed speed limit (in Space) by turning EXTERNAL MOVEMENT into an INTERNAL MOVEMENT. For example: the photon, which is moving in a vacuum with the highest possible speed in the space – but this speed is external to it; while an atom that has a more complex structure than the photon, except that it moves in relation to the environment (and consequently it moves slower than the photon), has also internal movement, internal speed - the speed of the elementary particles that make it up, which is not limited to the speed of light. Thus, the transformation of movement from external to internal allows the speed (of Time) to be increased without limit.

The above picture corresponds to what is visible in the Universe: structures of various complexity emerge and develop each of which moves at a different speed in Space. Their internal speed also varies. And it does not depend on their physical properties but on the organization of the structures themselves, on their place in the evolutionary process. (For instance: the internal speed of the micro organism is much greater than the internal speed of a meteorite as big as a mountain, while in respect of external speed, an inverse relation may obtain: the meteorite usually travels faster than the micro organism.) Perhaps this is the principle behind the creation of material entities. In an effort to increase their speed (in Time), particles constrained by the principle of maximum possible speed in Space begin to regroup and they form atoms, molecules, etc.; more and more complex structures emerge!

(For example: the organization of the elementary particles in the DNA molecule as compared to the organization of the molecules in metals. It is not difficult to see how the molecules are arranged in the one case and in the other, and how large the difference is in the complexity of their arrangement.)

The difference in speed has another important function: it determines the OBJECT-SUBJECT RELATION of structures to each other! If the speed of one structure is larger than the speed of the other, the first structure acquires the qualities of a subject, and vice versa.

Speed also constitutes another important relation: the subject is the one who is ahead in Time. For example: high-energy particles (radiation) are the past of a dying supernova exploded out into space, because it has created them in the process of its self-destruction. However, they are future to the observer, although he is able to determine the age of the star and is aware that it no longer exists. They are future (not because they come from the depths of space but) because the observer’s organic body cannot "capture" these particles, since they move at high speed and their energy is higher than the energy of the particles that constitute the observer’s body. Penetrating into the body, these particles can break the DNA and cause degeneration.

Each temporal structure aims to increase its internal speed, which is done by acquiring speed from the environment. This applies to all structures - from the elementary particles to the complex ecosystems that cover the globe.

(For example: the exposure of the body to the sun and the acquisition of suntan is a process of adding speed to the cells in the body, as a result of which the body receives a greater resistance to radiation, i.e. against the higher speeds.)

In such more perfect structures as the living organisms there exists a mechanism called metabolism, which is absent in the entities made of dead matter. This mechanism can safely be called a process of exchange of speeds. The goal is, by taking certain substances (containing higher speeds) in, to increase the overall speed of the body. When the body assimilates substances, this increases its overall speed, while the body manages to throw out all those substances that have speeds lower than required for the body. In a sense in can be said that the body "feeds" on the Future and gets rid of the Past.

In a sense it can be said that the birth and death of each entity are processes of exit from and entry into singularities of a purely temporal character - similar to the spatial singularities encountered in Nature. The process of becoming of natural phenomena (especially on the emotional rather than the physical plane) is a titanic effort to get out from the state of darkness (i.e. from the absence of knowledge) under the form of a boundless, empty and undefined cosmic space, and shine as a bright star, as matter condensed around itself, escaping its own loneliness and uncertainty. And darkness becomes light! (It is enough to throw a glance on a picture of a galaxy against the background of the inky sky to see this creative process in its grandeur and beauty:)

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Fig. 10

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Time - waves - mind

When you create a Theory of Everything, this theory must necessarily incorporate all possible aspects of the phenomena, or at least - until it becomes mature - a basic and necessary set of them.

Physics - deservedly the most respected and serious science - claims to create a Unified theory (Unified field theory, M-theory, quantum gravity, etc.), and this endeavour is more than commendable.

From the perspective of the philosopher, however, one "insignificant" fact cannot be hidden: physics avoids to deal with the IMMATERIAL PART of the phenomena. The impression is that this part does not exist (and that this is what every sane mind is supposed to believe, including the scientific mind, only that it is scientific precisely because it is a mind), it is not a part of Nature, not objective, and therefore has no place among the natural forces, gravity, energy, etc.

But it turns out that the physics escapes from its overall subject. On the contrary, if it claims to be the Science of Nature, it should include in their subject all natural phenomena, including the thinking as part of those events. The intangibility of phenomenon is no reason to reject it an object of study. (It is like excluding all the unknown x’s from mathematical formulas.)

If we start from the position of "World=Time", i.e. considering that the greatest Force in the World is Time (i.e. the image of all possible determination-freedom relations, and not just physical force), this will lead to the following conclusions.

As was said, the truth of the World should be given at all times, everywhere, including here and now, and not somewhere else – not sometime in the Future. Therefore, just as there are particles of matter and energy, so too there should be natural referents of consciousness that have a physical nature and are to be discovered, cognized, studied in unity with these same material particles and energies (it is a different question what meant by "particle", "energy", "thought", etc.).

What is the natural referent of thought and consciousness? Knowable, measurable, objective in nature, regardless of its specific subjective manifestations? How and where to log for it?

As stated, every phenomenon is the result of the pursuit of self-knowledge. (One must always start from this exact moment.)

A fundamental requirement of self-knowledge is the presence of movement and state. That moves is what is cognizing, the immobile is what is being cognized. Therefore the World (though only formally) acquires a dual nature, but it remains unique. Is there a physical referent to this duality?

Definitely yes.

According to contemporary science, the physical world (at the elementary quantum level) has a dual nature. Phenomena manifest themselves both as particles and as waves. Movement is expressed by waves while state is expressed by particles.

As was seen above, the particles have a tangible nature and this is due to their being "locked" to the Present in which they find their place in HISTORICAL TIME (and which as a result leads to their physical presence).

In contrast to the nature of the particles, the nature of waves is immaterial, although it is manifested by a physical medium, i.e. by particles. The wave "moves" the particles, "looks" at them from all sides and angles, in order to "know" them, and in this way it also determines them.

What does "immaterial essence" mean? If the particle is the manifestation of Substance in the Present, the wave is its manifestation in the other times - Past and Future. The observer, constrained in his abilities, is able to perceive the materiality of Substance only in the Present (and it is only in relation to the Present that he has sensory perceptions). Therefore, the question must be put thus: what is the objective referent of the Future that determines the Present and has objective presence in the physical world, but is elusive and intangible?

As was said, all entities in Nature can be treated either in the form of particles or in the form of waves. The wave is real only as a thought, because IT IS A THOUGHT ITSELF! The material world - the world of particles - is the time of the formation of the waves, their historical place in Time - as Present. Thinking (the wave nature), however, is from the position of the Future, its immaterial nature is due to the lack of presence in the Present. It is only from the position of the Future that the Present could be encompassed and explored. For this purpose, it is necessary to have speed, movement, a difference between cognized and cognizer. The cognized must move with a greater speed, which is why it is more forward in Time - in the Future. The thought must be infinite, unbounded, unlimited - as a wave is in principle infinite, boundless, limitless.

Another important conclusion can be drawn from the above.

It is said that only living (in particular, highly organized) matter has the ability to think, understand and feel - to be spiritual. This is not so. Any material entity (should) have this ability. It is no satisfactory explanation that thinking and spiritual nature appear suddenly, at a certain stage of evolutionary development, and that they are a function only of highly organized matter.

Any physical, material structure, that emits waves, exhibits mental activity. If the entity (particle) is simple, its thinking is also simple. In this sense we can say that the elementary particle thinks as an elementary particle (and this is why it is an elementary particle). Every more complex structure composed of elementary particles "thinks" thanks to the togetherness and organization of the thinking of the elementary particles of which it is composed. The result is a complex mental wave that reflects the "spiritual" world of the complex structure.

In conclusion: mental activity is inherent to all material formations. One can even say that the World is "floating" in an ocean of thoughts, feelings and experiences (of course, each of them is at the respective evolutionary level); and that so-called higher mental activity, believed to be the exception in the visible Universe, is only a small fraction of the psychic manifestations in Nature, which can be both extremely simple and endlessly complicated.

And these manifestations enter into enormously rich interconnections and interrelations. Einstein's position: the laws describing physical reality, should be true regardless of whether anyone sees this reality. This seemingly logical situation, however, leads to two serious objections.

The first regards the theory of Einstein himself. If reality exists objectively and the laws that govern it are independent of the observer, what is the meaning of the Theory of relativity (in which everything is relative and depends precisely on the observer)?

And the second - "observer" does not necessarily mean a person (the science should not be so self-centered as to insist that "observer" mean homo sapiens only).

The popular philosophical equality - "mental=physical" - does not stand criticism, not because the intention of combining the physical and the mental sides of phenomena is not commendable. But because it has a rather religious nature (there is no evidence), and it is not expressed in the appropriate formulas - its constituent elements are not sufficient to form a complete logical whole. What is missing is the third, unifying element, which, for that matter, exist in any scientific formula. And when it shows up, the equation would acquire the following complete form:

Physical + Mental = Time.

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Time machine

Why no Time machine is invented so far? Strangely enough, since all sorts of other machines are already in use, including machines for movement in Space. Why cannot there be machines moving in Time?

The answer: the Time machine cannot be invented because every machine is a "Time machine". All objects in the Universe (from quanta to galaxies) are "Time machines".

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Conclusion

Time is the Force. But not only in the physical sense. Time is the power in subjectivist sense - Fate. The subject can be saved from the impact of any physical force, but not from the power of Fate.

Time is not only a movement of the pendulum or the weather forecast. Knowing it is not limited to the creation of ultra-precise clocks. TIme is dead nature, but Time is life too. Time is feeling - terror, joy, love. It is the energy that creates and destroys. It is also the information that helps to master the great natural Force. That Force is the power of Time itself.

Time encompasses both the rational-logical and the spiritual-emotional. The one who studies it can reach the most secret and inaccessible sides of the objective and the subjective reality - the physical force and the essence of the human soul. It can be added that TIme is most encompassing cultural phenomenon in general.

Therefore, the solutions to existential problems must be sought nowhere else but in Time. Time alone (i.e. the mastering of its deterministic force rather than any other force) can solve the purely practical problems (as would say the believing mind): to achieve victory over death, to resurrect the souls of the dead, to realize the idea of Heaven, etc.

There is no "thing in itself" - in general. Time is knowable. Time develops itself and the cognitive process is pre-given in its basic nature. Only Time can predict how it could develop. Because only the Time contains the Future.

The readers probably never asked themselves the question: why don’t they carry constantly with themselves any other of their familiar “measures”, important to their existence? For example: kilogram (for weight), meter (for spatiality), watt (for energy). It is because, whether they have grasped the importance of Time, they value it, comply with it, make plans for tomorrow...

There is no need to specify that this "measure" is a small machine called CLOCK, such as everybody carries on their hand.

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